Archives: Theory

2D Arrays

2D arrays are data structures capable of storing more than one item of data (value) at a time. Unlike a 1D array, which is best visualised as a single list of values, a 2D array…

Logic Expressions into Truth Tables

It is important to understand how to complete a truth table from a logic expression. A truth table will show all the outputs for every possible input combination. Our Logic Circuits page explains how to…

Firmware

Firmware is a type of computer software.  It provides the low level control needed for a particular piece of hardware to work correctly. It can communicate directly with the hardware without needing to go through…

Virtual Memory

Virtual memory is the process of using a section of secondary storage (your hard drive) to give the illusion of extra memory (RAM). All open programs require a share of RAM, as do the files…

Data Packets and Packet Switching

Before transmission, files can be broken up into smaller chunks called data packets. Each packet is very small, usually less than 64 KiB in size. Controlling these small data packets is easier than managing large…

E-Waste

What is e-waste? E-waste is the term used to describe old, discarded electronics that can often still have some useful life left in them. Unfortunately these electronic items are often taken to landfills or shipped…

Digital Currencies (Cryptocurrencies)

What is a digital currency? A digital currency is one that only exists electronically.  This means there are no tangible coins or notes you can hold onto or carry around. Why would someone want to…

Trace Tables (Algorithm Dry Runs)

Trace tables are used when performing a dry-run of an algorithm. This could be an algorithm expressed as a flowchart or pseudocode. Trace tables record the outputs for a given set of data, allowing the…

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